Publications

199 Result(s)
Statistique Canada , 2003

Enquête auprès des peuples autochtones de 2001, première diffusion: tableaux de soutien 2

Abstract

L'Enquête auprès des peuples autochtones de 2001 (EAPA) est une enquête postcensitaire incluant les adultes et les enfants ayant déclaré lors du recensement une ascendance autochtone, une identité autochtone, un statut d'Indien inscrit et/ou une appartenance à une bande. Environ 76 000 adultes et 41 000 enfants vivant dans des ménages privés des provinces et des territoires ont été choisis pour participer à l'enquête. Les données ont été recueillies de septembre 2001 à janvier 2002. Ces tableaux contiennent des données sur les raisons pour quitter l'école primaire et secondaire et les raisons pour abandonner les études postsecondaires de la population d'identité autochtone (de 15 ans et plus) vivant hors réserve, pour le Canada, les provinces et les territoires. En outre, on fournit les données de groupes autochtones en particulier (les Indiens de l'Amérique du Nord, les Métis et les Inuits).

Statistique Canada , 2003

Enquête auprès des peuples autochtones de 2001, première diffusion: tableaux de soutien, Ottawa, Statistique Canada, catalogue no 89-592-XIF, 90p.

Abstract

L'Enquête auprès des peuples autochtones de 2001 (EAPA) est une enquête postcensitaire incluant les adultes et les enfants ayant déclaré lors du recensement une ascendance autochtone, une identité autochtone, un statut d'Indien inscrit et/ou une appartenance à une bande. Environ 76 000 adultes et 41 000 enfants vivant dans des ménages privés des provinces et des territoires ont été choisis pour participer à l'enquête. Les données ont été recueillies de septembre 2001 à janvier 2002. Ces tableaux contiennent des données sur la santé, l'éducation, les pensionnats et la langue de la population d'identité autochtone (de 15 ans et plus) vivant hors réserve, pour le Canada, les provinces et les territoires. En outre, on fournit les données de groupes autochtones en particulier (les Indiens de l'Amérique du Nord, les Métis et les Inuits) pour quelques variables.

Usher, P., G. Duhaime and E. Searles , 2003

The household as an Economic Unit in Arctic Aboriginal Communities and its Measurement by Means of a Comprehensive survey, Social Indicators Research, 61(2): 175-202.

Abstract

Northern aboriginal communities are widely recognized as having mixed, subsistence-based economies. The chief characteristic of this economy, aside from the contribution of subsistence harvesting and related activities to household well-being, is that the household operates as a "micro-enterprise" that is the basic unit of production as well as consumption. This economic form has persisted into the present day, contrary to the predictions of many social scientists and policy-makers. This paper outlines a model of the household in mixed, subsistence-based economies, and describes its characteristics and activities. While the discussion focuses on northern Canada, the model is thought to apply generally in the circumpolar North. Quantitative measurement of northern aboriginal household characteristics and activities has been limited, however, because national and regional data collection systems are not designed specifically to capture these phenomena. The model is therefore based primarily on the results of in-depth case studies, and the systematic measurement of subsistence harvesting. This paper describes the development, for the first time, of a questionnaire specifically designed to document quantitatively the key characteristics of the household economy as part of a comprehensive survey of living conditions in the circumpolar Arctic.

Arbour, Jean-Maurice , 2002

Food Secutity in the Arctic and International Environmental Law: A General Framework, In: Duhaime, G. (ed.), Sustainable Food Security in the Arctic. State of Knowledge. Edmonton, University of Alberta, CCI Press & GÉTIC, Occasional publications series no.52, pp. 153-175

Abstract

It is impossible to guarantee food security in the Arctic if problems relating to the protection of the environment on the one hand, and the promotion of a sustainable development on the other, are not taken into consideration by governments and people. As major sources of pollution in the Arctic originate both within and outside the region, the eight Arctic countries must work together to address common concerns. While global problems like the depletion of the ozone layer, transboundary air pollution, and global warming requite global solutions, the establishment of regional programs seems more appropriate to solve problems particular to Arctic countries. From the standpoint of international law, environmental problems and problems relating to sustainable development transcend national boundaries. The role of international law is to provide mechanisms to facilitate cooperation between nation states, negotiate the legal norms, regulate the use of resources, settle disputes, supervise implementation of treaties and amend existing treaties through the introduction of new norms. The object of this chapter is to portray the general framework of international environmental law applicable to the Arctic. As regards problems specific to the circumpolar region, there exists a substantial body of instruments that deal with various aspects of the Arctic environment. In the final report, an attempt will be made to measure the effectiveness of existing treaties and identify the legal gaps to be filled in order to assure food security in the Arctic.

Blanchet, Carole , 2002

Diet Profile of Circumpolar Inuit, In: Duhaime, G. (ed.), Sustainable Food Security in the Arctic. State of Knowledge. Edmonton, University of Alberta, CCI Press & GÉTIC, Occasional publications series no.52, pp. 47-60

Abstract

Nutrition surveys conducted in the Arctic indicate major variations in nutrient intake among Inuit from different regions. However, no studies have been undertaken to evaluate the importance of these differences or similarities in term of nutrient intakes. In order to provide a basis for comparison of the different Arctic regions, a profile of food consumption and nutritional patterns for each circumpolar region is required. The main objective of this chapter was to describe Inuit diet and estimate nutritional values for each region (Canada, Alaska, Greenland, Siberia), and to study trends over rime. To do this, an inventory was taken of all nutritional surveys conducted on Inuit populations in the circumpolar Arctic, as well as a review of the different survey methods used, and standardized data compiled. For interregional comparisons, only the most recent and most complete surveys were considered. However, the more dated surveys served to establish temporal trends. Mean consumption leve1s, energy and nutrient intakes were measured according to gender and age. The contribution of traditional and market foods to energy and nutrient intakes were also assessed. Finally, the principal diet changes occurring in Inuit populations in the last decades were put in perspective to identify the ideal conditions in which an optimal diet can be secured.

Caulfield, Richard A. , 2002

Food Security in Artic Alaska: A Preliminary Assessment, In: Duhaime, G. (ed.), Sustainable Food Security in the Arctic. State of Knowledge. Edmonton, University of Alberta, CCI Press & GÉTIC, Occasional publications series no.52, pp. 75-92

Abstract

Alaska's Arctic communities have a dynamic mixed economy that is central to understanding food security and sustainable development. In this economy, cash and country food production are mutually supportive. Country foods are vital to nutritional, economic, and cultural development in Alaska's Aboriginal communities. Research in northern Alaska shows that they are widely obtained, consumed, and shared within families and communities. At the same time, imported foods offer a wide array of nutritional choices. However, they are often expensive, their availability can be uncertain, and their quality can vary greatly. This paper describes Alaska's northern most regions and discusses this mixed economy as it relates to food security and safety. It highlights five major issues affecting food security in northern Alaska: subsistence conflicts, contaminants in country foods, global climate change, industrial development and habitat degradation, and animal rights activism. It also points to additional research needs important to understanding Alaska's food security in a circumpolar context.

Chabot, M., G. Duhaime and M. Gaudreault , 2002

Food Consumption Patterns and Socioeconomic Factors Among the Inuit of Nunavik, Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 41(2): 91-118.

Abstract

This article examines the dietary patterns of the Inuit of Nunavik, based on data from a 1992 Government of Quebec survey. Using data primarily from the Food Frequency questionnaire on a sample of 178 women between 18 and 74 years of age, the study investigates the role of various socioeconomic factors and the influence of the socioeconomic status of the household to which each woman belongs. These factors are analyzed in relation to the proportion of traditional or industrial foods consumed by respondents. The study shows that the presence of a male head of the household and, to a lesser extent, access to an income, raise the proportion of country foods in the diet. Other findings reveal that the main mechanisms for the distribution of country foods, such as sharing practices and a community freezer, play a significant role, but do not compensate when the above two conditions are not found in households.

Duhaime, Gérard , 2002

Food Networks in the North American Arctic, In: Duhaime, G. (ed.), Sustainable Food Security in the Arctic. State of Knowledge. Edmonton, University of Alberta, CCI Press & GÉTIC, Occasional publications series no.52, pp. 63-74

Abstract

This chapter presents the state of our knowledge about the formal economy of food security in the Arctic. It explains the main characteristics of food markets in different Arctic regions, and addresses such questions as: what businesses are involved (private, public, local, national, international, etc.)? What is the structure of the supply chain (import/export, links from the producers to retail stores)? Is local food sold in the formal market (products of renewable resource exploitation and local manufacture, when available)? Are the food chains well established and reliable, or new and fragile? etc. This is the first time an effort is made to synthesize such issues, usually considered under the single angle of the hunting and fishing production in the Arctic. This work provides solid basis for evaluating this key component of food supply and consumption, even if it concludes that more research has to be done to have a complete picture.

Duhaime, Gérard , 2002

Sustainable Food Security in the Arctic: State of Knowledge, In: Duhaime, G. (ed.), Sustainable Food Security in the Arctic. State of Knowledge. Edmonton, University of Alberta, CCI Press & GÉTIC, Occasional publications series no.52, 252p.

Abstract not available
Duhaime, G. and A. Godmaire , 2002

Les modèles du développement du Nord. Analyse exploratoire au Québec isolé, Recherches sociographiques, 43(2): 329-351.

Abstract

Dispersées dans tout le Québec non urbanisés, quelque 80 agglomérations dites du « Québec isolé » forment des regroupements ethnogéographiques aux contours flous dont les destins socioéconomiques sont très différents. Cette étude examine les modèles de développement de ces communautés. Elle est fondée sur une analyse comparative détaillée de plusieurs dizaines de variables portant sur la démographie, l'éducation, la santé, le logement, le revenu personnel, les dépenses publiques, les activités économiques. Neuf indicateurs clés sont analysés ici. L'étude montre que ces réalités forment quatre modèles de développement, qui se distinguent principalement suivant le type d'exploitation des ressources naturelles et les caractéristiques de la population. Dans les régions où l'exploitation des ressources est pratiquée à grande échelle, les populations bénéficient des retombées économiques du développement. Mais elles le font selon des modalités différentes, directement parce que les familles en ont fait leur gagne-pain, ou indirectement parce que les populations en cause ont pu capitaliser sur l'attrait des ressources. Dans les régions où l'exploitation des ressources est pratiquée à petite échelle, où la prospérité n'est plus assurée par des mécanismes autrefois efficaces, la situation générale se détériore non seulement parce que l'infrastructure économique demeure faible, mais aussi parce que les populations n'ont pas de poids politique pour qu'il en soit autrement. Dans cette perspective, le facteur ethnique serait un déterminant bien moins important que la présence de richesses massives et la capacité d'en tirer localement partie.

Duhaime, G. and A. Godmaire , 2002

The Conditions of Sustainable Food Security. An Integrated Conceptual Framework, In: Duhaime, G. (ed.), Sustainable Food Security in the Arctic. State of Knowledge. Edmonton, University of Alberta, CCI Press & GÉTIC, Occasional publications series no.52, pp. 15-45

Abstract

Based upon a review of the world literature, this chapter presents an integrated conceptual framework of the conditions of food security. The systemic model provides definitions of the principal variables, as well as explanations and illustrations of their mutual - and most of the time multidimensional - relationships. The fundamental framework is that food security and food insecurity (both being potentially sustainable or not) is the result of the relations between social factors (demography, health), intermediating mechanism (food production and circulation in the market and the non-market spheres), and food consumption determinants (accessibility, availability). The framework is drawn here in order to provide the readers with a tool to situate each of the following chapters into a global context, to provide the analytical tool that will guide the synthesis of this book which is presented in the last chapter

Halley, P. and M. Verreault , 2002

Environmental Law, Sustainable Development and Food Security in Nunavik, In: Duhaime, G. (ed.), Sustainable Food Security in the Arctic. State of Knowledge. Edmonton, University of Alberta, CCI Press & GÉTIC, Occasional publications series no.52, pp. 177-188

Abstract

This chapter discusses a large body of research involving provincial and Federal environmental law within the framework of sustainable development in Nunavik. The objective is to identify the links between environmental protection, economic development, natural resource management, and food security and identify how these links, under Canadian and Quebec law, affect the understanding and resolution of conflict pertaining to sustainable development in the region. A systemic approach is used for the study of sustainable development, in which close attention is paid to the ecological dimensions and their interactions with social and economic variables. Using this perspective, the legal framework for Nunavik is identified, and its effectiveness in ensuring ecosystem viability and stability explored. The results presented in this chapter are preliminary. Finally, our study identifies the politicized nature of research on the legal aspects of sustainable development and prospects tor future research.

Levesque, Carole , 2002

Between Abundance and Scarcity: Food and the Institution of Sharing Among the Inuit of the Circumpolar Region During the Recent Historical Period, In: Duhaime, G. (ed.), Sustainable Food Security in the Arctic. State of Knowledge. Edmonton, University of Alberta, CCI Press & GÉTIC, Occasional publications series no.52, pp. 103-115

Abstract

This chapter outlines factors of change and continuity of food patterns among the Inuit of Northern Quebec. Arguments presented are based on a review of the literature on food acquisition, consumption, and distribution in the circumpolar Arctic over a hundred years. In this period, Inuit food dynamics have evolved along with other important aspects of their social and economic organization. Nutrition-related behaviours and practices have been modified or have disappeared altogether new ones have been integrated, some with success, others creating new problems and constraints. The establishment of trading posts and settlements, and introduction of firearms, and manufactured food products profoundly altered Inuit economics and Inuit ways in this regard, but today's social and food networks are still largely based on a logic and criteria. that were valid a hundred years ago. It is argued that in the Arctic, the basic trends and characteristics of the current Western formal economy are informed and supported in many ways by a continued Inuit rationality.

Melkevik, Bjarne , 2002

The Law and Aboriginal Reindeer Herding in Norway, In: Duhaime, G. (ed.), Sustainable Food Security in the Arctic. State of Knowledge. Edmonton, University of Alberta, CCI Press & GÉTIC, Occasional publications series no.52, pp. 197-203

Abstract

The legal framework of reindeer herding activities of the Sami people of Norway is used to consider food security and legal access to natural resources. A description of how the Sami became 'the reindeer people,' and how herding became their main source of self-identification, sets the stage to analyze how herding activities have changed into an Aboriginal industry. A last section of the paper is devoted to the economic and ecological problems related to reindeer herding. In the final analysis, it is argued that it must be the responsibility of Sami political institutions, the Samiting, to make choices concerning the future of Sami reindeer herding activities in Norway.

Müller-Wille, Ludger , 2002

From Reindeer Stew to Pizza: The Displacement of Local Food Resources in Sapmi, Nothernmost Europe, In: Duhaime, G. (ed.), Sustainable Food Security in the Arctic. State of Knowledge. Edmonton, University of Alberta, CCI Press & GÉTIC, Occasional publications series no.52, pp. 145-150

Abstract

The gradual displacement of endogenous food resources - the reindeer stew - by food items that have exogenous origin and are globally marketed - the pizza -i s discussed by taking the Sami and their subarctic homeland, Sapmi, as an example. First is an examination of how the interrelationship among people, environment, resources, and food production can be linked to population density and carrying capacity in specific ecosystems. Secondly, a summary description of the historical Sami food household, based solely on subarctic fauna and flora resources is provided. Third, the modern process of exogenous food imports is presented by introducing the concepts of distant consumption and de-localization of resources. Finally, these concepts are applied to show the emerging local dependency on external resources and the resulting displacement of local resources with respect to their importance and values, economically and culturally, for Sami society.

Myers, Heather , 2002

The Changing Food Economy in Nunavut: Will Country Food Stores Secure Nunavut's Food Supply?, In: Duhaime, G. (ed.), Sustainable Food Security in the Arctic. State of Knowledge. Edmonton, University of Alberta, CCI Press & GÉTIC, Occasional publications series no.52, pp. 95-101

Abstract

The traditional Inuit food production economy has been influenced by a variety of events and circumstances, including the settlement in communities, the introduction of new hunting technologies and wage employment, the anti sealing lobby, and social policies and changes that have altered hunting and fishing, and sharing patterns. Yet the traditional economy has remained important to Inuit, and the Nunavut government has recognized the value of developing the renewable resource sector. Country food stores may be one way to meet several needs, economic development, provision of affordable and nutritious food, and continuation of Inuit cultural values. There have been several such outlets developed in the Northwest Territories, which have entered local, regional, territorial, national and international markets, some with impressive success. In Nunavut, two examples of country food outlets are examined, from Pond lnlet and Cambridge Bay, along with their philosophy, employment and sales patterns. These outlets and their apparent success, raise some interesting research questions, which are outlined at the end of the paper.

Otis, Ghislain , 2002

Inuit Subsistence Rights Under the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement: A Legal Perspective on Food Security in Nunavik, In: Duhaime, G. (ed.), Sustainable Food Security in the Arctic. State of Knowledge. Edmonton, University of Alberta, CCI Press & GÉTIC, Occasional publications series no.52, pp. 189-195

Abstract

This chapter outlines some of the key issues relating to the security of the subsistence rights of the Inuit in Nunavik. It is a part of a broader research question aimed at achieving a better understanding of how food security relates to legal security with regard to access to and use of country-food resources by Aboriginal people. Existing research underscores the importance of subsistence economies in the quest for sustainable development and food security in the Arctic. It also acknowledges the critical role played by Aboriginal land rights regimes in securing access to the land and its renewable resources. This chapter thus ascertains the legal foundations and scope of Inuit subsistence rights in Nunavik under the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement. It also briefly examines how these rights interact with other uses of the land and identifies potential insecurity generating features of the Agreements subsistence regime, which will require further analysis. Aspects of the broader legal environment likely to impact on the security of Inuit subsistence rights are also identified and targeted for more in-depth study.

Peters, Evelyn , 2002

Sustainable Development, Food Security and Aboriginal Self-Government in the Circumpolar North, In: Duhaime, G. (ed.), Sustainable Food Security in the Arctic. State of Knowledge. Edmonton, University of Alberta, CCI Press & GÉTIC, Occasional publications series no.52, pp. 205-225

Abstract

This chapter explores the issues of Aboriginal self-government and sustainable development with a particular focus on aspects relevant to food security. The essay develops, describes, and compares self-government initiatives in Canada, Alaska, Greenland and the Scandinavian countries with respect to the management of wildlife and fisheries; environmental assessment and protection; harvester support programs; and, economic development which focuses on commercial production and marketing of country food. Two main principles are employed to compare these arrangements, their support for indigenous cultures, and the degree to which they provide Aboriginal people with real ability to make decisions or to influence decision-making processes. The analysis shows that self-government arrangements in the circumpolar region vary both within and between countries. While none of the arrangements provide Aboriginal people with jurisdiction over their territory, some do create co-management regimes and advisory structures which provide for the inclusion of Aboriginal concerns in the policy-making process. At the same time, the challenge of integrating Aboriginal decision-making systems, knowledge, and values into structures of governance, which reflect western cultures and which rely on western science, has not been explicitly addressed in any of these arrangements. In all of the areas examined, there are continuing questions about resolving conflicts between development and the protection of subsistence economies.

Rasmussen, Rasmus Ole , 2002

Food Consumption Patterns and Local Markets in the Arctic, In: Duhaime, G. (ed.), Sustainable Food Security in the Arctic. State of Knowledge. Edmonton, University of Alberta, CCI Press & GÉTIC, Occasional publications series no.52, pp. 117-143

Abstract

In many parts of the Arctic, imported low quality foods seem to have replaced high quality locally produced food. In the case of Greenland, however, another situation is dominating. Here, local informal markets, in existence for a very long time, not only continue to play an important role in the local economy, but also caused the local agenda to be directed to the commercial sector. The issue examined in this paper is the evolution of food markets in Greenland, and the relationship between imported and locally produced food. A major question is how consumer behaviour is reflected in consumption patterns. The study begins with an exploration of how the issue has been treated in the literature. Next is an analysis of the food supply situation in Greenland by means of different statistics sources, with special emphasis on the connection between the formal and the informal sectors in relation to food production and consumption. The main purpose of the paper is to arrive at a general understanding of the problems of market economies in remote regions, and of the dynamics between the commercial and the non-commercial markets in relation to food supply and food consumption patterns. One major conclusion of the study is that the informal market drives the local agenda and consumers' preferences are visible in economies characterized by monopolies, enabling local products to be maintained as important food items.

Winther, G. and G. Duhaime , 2002

Cooperatives Societies in Greenland and Nunavik. A Lesson of the Importance of Supporting Structures, Journal of Rural Cooperation, 30 (1): 25-41.

Abstract

We present different types of cooperatives in Greenland and Nunavik, Canada, in order to assess two different developments. A first approach to comparisons leads to an anomaly suggesting the necessity of empirical analysis in the two regions. Why is it that Greenland never really managed to create a cooperative movement? Except for consumer cooperatives, the remaining types of supply and worker cooperatives were a failure. There were isolated success stories for a limited period of time, but the general picture remains the same. Most of these cooperatives are liquidated, and we never saw multi-purpose cooperatives established. Quite the contrary took place in Nunavik, in the northern part of Québec in Canada. Here we saw a viable cooperative movement, and everywhere local communities established multipurpose cooperatives. At the same time a strong cooperative association evolved. It seems that cooperative supporting structures are essential to a cooperative success in an Arctic region.

Chabot, Marcelle , 2001

De la production domestique au marché: l'économie contemporaine des familles inuit du Nunavik, Ph.D., Département de sociologie, Université Laval, Québec, Canada, 503p.

Abstract

Cette étude s'intéresse aux transformations récentes des pratiques économiques des ménages inuit. Les comportements de consommation de ces derniers sont examinés dans le but de comprendre la rationalité qui fonde leurs actions. L'étude repose sur une estimation et une caractérisation de leurs transactions monétaires et non monétaires annuelles, dont les données sont tirées d'une enquête originale réalisée en 1995 auprès d'un échantillon de 47 ménages dans deux villages du Nunavik (Québec, Canada). L'analyse montre que l'économie vivrière conserve une place significative au plan social, culturel et économique, bien que la rnarchandisation de la vie quotidienne et la monétisation des ressources caractérisent aussi l'économie de ces ménages. De plus, les Inuit sont économiquement rationnels et appliquent couramment le calcul monétaire. Cependant les valeurs et normes traditionnelles influencent largement leurs pratiques de consommation. L'analyse permet de conclure que la société contemporaine au Nunavik, bien qu'elle participe au marché, ne peut être assimilée à la culture de consommation.

Duhaime, G., N. Bernard and A. Godmaire , 2001

La sédentarisation des autochtones, dans: Le Nord: habitants et mutations, Atlas historique du Québec, Sainte-Foy, Presses de l'Université Laval, pp. 173-193

Abstract not available
Duhaime, G., A. Morin, H. Myers and D. St-Pierre , 2001

Inuit Business Ownership. Canadian Experiences, Greenland Challenge, Arctic Research Journal, (1): 193-212.

Abstract not available
Martin, Thibault , 2001

Solidarités et intégration communautaire. Le projet Grande-Baleine et le relogement des Inuit de Kuujjuarapik à Umiujaq, Ph.D., Département de sociologie, Université Laval, Québec, Canada, 575p.

Abstract

En 1986, un tiers de la population inuit du village de Kuujjuarapik (Nunavik) déménageait pour aller fonder le nouveau village d'Umiujaq. Dans cette thèse nous cherchons à comprendre comment une agrégation d'individu peut se transformer en une communauté intégrée. Pour répondre à cette question nous nous intéressons plus particulièrement au rôle joué par les solidarités dans l'intégration communautaire. L'hypothèse à la base de la thèse est qu'au lieu d'être antinomiques les deux formes de solidarités, telles que définies par la sociologie classique, réciprocité d'une part et solidarité associative d'autre part se complètent. L'analyse développée dans cette thèse suggère que l'existence de deux sources distinctes de solidarité permet à l'acteur social d'exercer un accès réflexif aux différentes sources de solidarité, ce qui favorise son intégration en tant qu'individu autonome au sein de la communauté. Par contre, le dysfonctionnement de l'une ou l'autre des solidarités ou l'incapacité du sujet d'avoir un accès réflexif aux solidarités a pour conséquence d'empêcher celui-ci de s'inscrire comme individu autonome dans la communauté.