Publications

199 Result(s)
Duhaime, Gérard , 2006

Nunavimmiut Pay More for Staple Consumer Goods, Nunivaat, Nunavik Statistical Bulletin, Canada Research Chair on Comparative Aboriginal People, Université Laval, Québec, Canada, no 2E-December 2006.

Abstract not available
Duhaime, G. and A. Caron , 2006

The Economy of the Circumpolar Arctic, in Solveig Glomsrod and Iulie Aslaksen (eds.), The Economy of the North, Oslo, Statistics Norway, chapter 2, pp 17-23

Abstract not available
Shadian, Jessica , 2006

Reconceptualizing Sovereignty Through Indigenous Autonomy: A Case Study of Arctic Governance and the Inuit Circumpolar Conference, Ph.D., Faculty of Political Science and International Relations, University of Delaware, United-States, 465p.

Abstract

This dissertation examines the role of the Inuit Circumpolar Conference (ICC) as a case study for the ways in which non-state actors are changing previous conceptions of sovereignty in the study of International Relations. This dissertation explores the ways in which sovereignty, as demarcated by a territorially bounded state, is becoming only one dimension of a new locus of sovereignty. Legitimate sovereignty has been transferred from the sole discretion of the state to the domain of existing non-state and emerging institutions. As an institution, the ICC has attained both Arctic domestic and international power and influence. Yet, its legitimacy is derived through an ongoing historical narrative of what it means to be 'indigenous' and 'Inuit' within international politics. The dissertation focuses on three different yet overlapping levels of analysis. Specifically, these levels are (1) the domestic-Inuit political identity construction in Canada, Greenland, and Alaska; (2) the Arctic regional-the ICC in relation to the Arctic Council and; (3) the international-UN, international legal discourse. The ICC has attained legitimacy in a changing global system by espousing a certain discourse based on a narrative of the collective history of the Inuit-the myth of the 'Arctic Inuit.' This myth, culminating with the Inuit as an Arctic indigenous transnational polity, has attained its authority and legitimacy through direct institutional ties to emerging international human rights discourse. The point is to illustrate how, in traversing all these levels of authority, the ICC has managed to make Inuit self-determination part of the very definition of sustainable development (Inuit stewardship over the Arctic); establish sustainable development as the dominant discourse of the Arctic; and ensure that sustainable development falls squarely under the broader issue of international human rights. In essence, this case study of the ICC demonstrates that, for 'the Inuit,' sovereignty is exercised not through their ability to achieve statehood or as an NGO or intergovernmental institution, but through the legitimacy of their myth-or collective history within the realm of global politics- providing one example of the constitutive relationship between non-state institutions and the making of global agendas.

Statistique Canada , 2006

Activités de récolte et bien-être de la collectivité parmi les Inuits dans l'Arctique canadien: constatations préliminaires de l'Enquête auprès des peuples autochtones de 2001 - Enquête sur les conditions de vie dans l'Arctique, Ottawa, Statisitique Canada, catalogue no. 89-619-XIF, 28p.

Abstract

Nous présentons dans le présent rapport quelques constatations initiales de l'Enquête auprès des peuples autochtones (EAPA) de 2001 concernant les Inuits qui vivent dans l'Arctique canadien. Aux fins du présent article, la population inuite comprend les personnes qui se sont déclarées inuites dans l'EAPA. L'« Arctique » s'entend de l'ensemble des 53 collectivités énumérées à la section « Qualité des données, concepts et méthodologie - Liste des collectivités comptant une forte population inuite qui ont participé à l'EAPA de 2001 ». La plupart des renseignements présentés ici portent sur les adultes, c'est-à-dire les personnes âgées de 15 ans et plus. Nous donnons parfois certains renseignements sur les enfants inuits âgés de moins de 15 ans.

Statistique Canada , 2006

Harvesting and Community Well-Being Among Inuit in the Canadian Arctic: Preliminary Findings from the 2001 Aboriginal Peoples Survey-Survey of Living Conditions in the Arctic, Ottawa, Statistics Canada, Catalogue no 89-619-XIE, 25p.

Abstract

In this report, some initial findings from the 2001 Aboriginal Peoples Survey (APS) concerning Inuit living in the Canadian Arctic are presented. For the purposes of this article, the Inuit population consists of those who identified as Inuit on the APS. 'Arctic' refers to the aggregate of the 53 communities identified in "Data quality, concepts and methodology - List of communities with large Inuit populations participating in the 2001 APS" section. Most of the information presented here is on adults, that is, those aged 15 and over. Brief mention is also made of some information related to Inuit children less than 15 years of age.

Bernard, Nick sous la dir. de G. Duhaime, 2005

Profil socioéconomique des aînés du Nunavik, Chaire de recherche du Canada sur la condition autochtone comparée, Université Laval, Québec, Canada, 85p.

Abstract

Les conditions socio-économiques des aînés du Nunavik sont précaires et se caractérisent de la façon suivante : leurs revenus sont inférieurs aux moyennes québécoises et les transferts gouvernementaux représentent plus de la moitié du revenu total; les activités de chasse, de pêche, de cueillette et la vente de produits artistiques et artisanaux permettent de suppléer aux revenus, soit par la vente ou par l'approvisionnement alimentaire; plus de la moitié des logements habités par les aînés sont surpeuplés et occupés en moyenne par 5 personnes; un aîné six est sur une liste d'attente pour un logement social.

Bernard, Nick under the dir. of G. Duhaime, 2005

Socio-economic Profile of Elders in Nunavik, Canada Research Chair on Comparative Aboriginal Condition, Université Laval, Québec, Canada, 85p.

Abstract

The socio-economic conditions of elders in Nunavik are unstable and may be characterized as follows: their income is lower than the Québec average and government security benefits represent more than half of their total income; hunting, fishing and gathering activities as well as the sale of art and craft products supplement their income, either through sales or the exchange of food; elders live in dwellings with, on average, five individuals; one out of every six elders is on a waiting list for social housing.

Duhaime, G., N. Bernard and R. Comtois , 2005

An Inventory of Abandoned Mining Exploration sites in Nunavik, Canada, The Canadian Geographer/Le géographe canadien, 49(3), 260-271

Abstract

This article presents, for the first time in the literature, an inventory of abandoned mining exploration sites in Nunavik, namely the sites containing materials representing a danger to the environment and human health, to lay the foundations for a priority cleanup operation. In this article, the historical context of mining exploration in Canada first provides a backdrop for the research problem. The methodology section then examines the various techniques tested during a pilot project aimed at determining the feasibility of the project at the lowest cost. The final section presents an inventory of abandoned sites and begins an initial discussion of the potential impacts associated with these sites and some of the priority actions envisioned to mitigate these impacts.

Lamothe, Bernard , 2005

Le grand portage des Atikamekw de l'ère précolombienne au monde comtemporain. Conditions de vie, rapports communautaires et problèmes sociaux, Ph.D., Département de sociologie, Université Laval, Québec, Canada, 456p.

Abstract

De très nombreuses études concluent que les problèmes sociaux sont plus fréquents là où les formes de solidarité et d'entraide sont fortement ébranlées. Or, les données disponibles à ce jour concernant les Atikamekw nous questionnent sur la possibilité du caractère pathologique de leurs conditions de vie. Il a donc été décidé d'aller observer de près ces problèmes sociaux et l'état de leurs réseaux de sociabilité. Il a été constaté que les Atikamekw ont préservé des formes évidentes de solidarité et d'entraide. Comment se fait-il alors que des problèmes sociaux se présentent avec une telle acuité dans ces trois réserves indiennes? Les données recueillies démontrent que les communautés atikamekw contiennent deux populations distinctes : d'une part, les gens instruits, détenant un emploi et pouvant compter sur des revenus décents et, d'autre part, les gens inactifs, ayant un faible niveau de scolarité et des revenus forts modestes. Ce sont ces derniers qui présentent le plus de problèmes sociaux, en dépit du fait qu'ils participent eux aussi, mais dans une moindre mesure, aux diverses formes de partage.et d'entraide. Ainsi, l'instruction, un emploi et des revenus décents paraissent les éléments moteur d'une meilleure intégration au monde moderne et d'une plus grande participation à la vie communautaire.

Parent, Geneviève , 2005

La contribution des accords de l'OMC à la sécurité alimentaire mondiale: L'exemple des produits agricoles issus des biotechnologies modernes, Ph.D., Faculté de droit, Université Laval, Québec, Canada, 507p.

Abstract

L'objectif général de la présente thèse est de fournir une analyse critique du rôle potentiel des accords de l'Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) dans l'atteinte de la sécurité alimentaire mondiale durable. Le concept de sécurité alimentaire retenu aux fins de cette thèse est celui déterminé lors du Sommet mondial de l'alimentation, tenu à Rome en 1996, auquel nous juxtaposons le concept de développement durable. L'objectif spécifique de cette thèse est d'analyser la contribution des accords de l'OMC à la production et à la circulation marchandes des produits agricoles issus des biotechnologies modernes (PAIBM) pour assurer la disponibilité des ces produits sur les marchés, au bénéfice d'une sécurité alimentaire qui soit durable. Le choix de nous attarder au choix des PAIBM nous permet de nous interroger sur la contribution des accords de l'OMC dans leurs aspects les plus modernes. Cette analyse s'effectue à deux niveaux : 1) la contribution qui émane des relations des règles de l'OMC entre elles (cohérence interne) et 2) celle qui ressort de l'intégration de ces normes dans un environnement plus vaste qui est celui du droit international public général (cohérence externe). Notre travail nous conduit à confirmer l'hypothèse de départ selon laquelle les accords de l'OMC contiennent certaines pistes de solution pour assurer la souplesse nécessaire à une production et une circulation de PAIBM qui se fasse au profit de la sécurité alimentaire. Ces pistes de solutions sont toutefois tenues. Elles doivent être consolidées et renforcées afin d'assurer que la sécurité alimentaire que les accords de l'OMC servent soit durable, sans quoi notre hypothèse de départ pourrait être réfutée par l'analyse des nouvelles versions des accords de l'OMC issus du cycle de négociations de Doha. L'OMC doit surtout tendre vers davantage de cohérence externe. Elle doit en effet prendre en compte plus efficacement des considérations autres que commerciales, de concert avec les accords environnementaux, afin d'assurer la durabilité de sa contribution à la sécurité alimentaire. Le concept de développement durable devrait servir d'assise à cette cohérence.

Chabot, Marcelle , 2004

Consumption and Standards of Living of the Québec Inuit: Cultural Permanence and Discontinuities, Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 41(2): 147-170.

Abstract

This study explores some recent trends in the economic practices of the Inuit of Nunavik (Quebec, Canada). It is based on a characterization of the monetary and non-monetary transactions made by a sample of 38 Inuit households in 1995. The analyses show that the Inuit are highly dependent on manufactured goods. The rise in income has allowed for more discretionary income; however, analyses suggest that current economic conditions place limitations on the development of individual wants and aspirations, as well as play a significant role in encouraging traditional norms of conduct. It is suggested that material conditions and values mutually reinforce one another to reduce the penetration of a consumer culture.

Chabot, M. and G. Duhaime et al., 2004

The Impacts of Dietary Changes Among the Inuit of Nunavik (Canada): A Socioeconomic Assessment of Possible Public Health Recommendations Dealing with Food Contamination, Risk Analysis, 24(4), 1007-1118.

Abstract

Inuit populations meet a large portion of their food needs by eating country food in which pollutants are concentrated. Despite the fact that they contain pollutants, the consumption of country food has many health, social, economic, and cultural benefits. A risk determination process was set up in order to help regional health authorities of Nunavik to deal with this particular issue. Based on Nunavik health authorities' objectives to encourage the region's inhabitants to change their dietary habits, and on both the risks and the benefits of eating country food, several management options were developed. The options aimed at reducing exposure to contaminants by either substituting certain foods with others that have a lower contaminant content or by store-bought foods. This article aims at assessing the potential economic impact of these risk management options before being implemented. Relevant economic data (aggregate income and monetary outlays for the purchase of food and equipment required for food production by households) were collected and identified to serve as a backdrop for the various replacement scenarios. Results show that household budgets, and the regional economy, are not significantly affected by the replacement of contaminated foods with the purchase of store-bought meat, and even less so if the solution involves replacing contaminated foods with other types of game hunted in the region. When financial support is provided by the state, the households can even gain some monetary benefits. Results show that public health authorities' recommended changes to dietary habits among the Inuit of Nunavik would not necessarily involve economic constraints for Inuit households.

Duhaime, Gérard ,

Circumpolar Socio-Economic Comparisons. A Tool for Better Governance, In Northern Research Forum. Northern Veche. Veliky Novgorod, NRF: 175-178.

Abstract not available
Duhaime, Gérard et al., 2004

Economic Systems, In: Arctic Human Development Report, Arctic Council., O. Young et N. Einarsson (dir.), Arctic Human Development Report, Reykjavik, Iceland, pp 69-84.

Abstract

The formal economy of the Arctic is mainly based on large-scale exploitation of natural resources (e.g. mineral, oil and gas, and fish), most of which are exported. The service sector is well developed in many parts of the Arctic, whereas manufacturing plays a relatively minor role. Public services are often supported by transfer payments from central governments but overall, more money is flowing out of the Arctic than into the region. The large-scale exploitation of Arctic resources is important to the national economies of several Arctic countries, as well as in the global economy. This is especially true for the Russian Arctic. The size and structure of the economy differ between and within countries. The gaps between wealthy and poor regions appear everywhere but are most extreme in Russia and North America. The Arctic is likely to continue to play a role as a reservoir of resources for the rest of the world. New trends are privatization of resources and new forms of economic partnerships.

Duhaime, Gérard , 2004

La situation socio-économique du Nunavik et l'avenir de l'État, Communication présentée dans le cadre des Forums régionaux sur l'avenir du Québec, Kuujjuaq, 17 juin 2004. Chaire de recherche du Canada sur la condition autochtone comparée, Collection Recherche en ligne, Université Laval, Québec, Canada, 15p.

Abstract not available
Duhaime, Gérard , 2004

Social and Economic Situation of Nunavik and the Future of State, Paper presented in the Forums régionaux sur l'avenir du Québec, Kuujjuaq, June 17, 2004, Canada Research Chair on Comparative Aboriginal Condition, Collection Recherche en ligne, Université Laval, Québec, Canada, 14p.

Abstract not available
Duhaime, G., J. Baert and L. Ampleman , 2004

Gestion intégrée des réseaux de transport dans le Nord-Du-Québec, Chaire de recherche du Canada sur la condition autochtone comparée, Collection Recherche en ligne, Université Laval, Québec, Canada, 104p.

Abstract not available
Duhaime, G., E. Searles, P. Usher, H. Myers and P. Fréchette , 2004

Social Cohesion and Living Conditions in the Canadian Arctic: From Theory to Measurement, Social Indicators Research, 66(3), 295-317

Abstract

Social cohesion has emerged as a powerful hybrid concept used by academics and policy analysts. Academics use the concept to underline the social and economic failings of modernity, linking it to the decline of communal values and civic participation. Policy analysts use it to highlight the social and economic inequities caused by globalization. The desired effect of using this concept is often to influence governments to implement policies that will enhance social cohesion by reducing social and economic disparities. Despite its widespread use, however, statistical measures of social cohesion tend to overlook local, non-Western strategies of social inclusion as well as the social impact of non-Western economic systems, such as the mixed economy typical of many Aboriginal communities in North America. In this paper, we develop a model of social cohesion that addresses these omissions through the use of social indicators that measure both the behavior and perceptions of Inuit living in the Canadian Arctic with respect to the social, cultural and economic conditions of Arctic communities. We explain how and why measuring social cohesion is optimized by combining both culturally-specific and non-specific social indicators.

Auclair, Rémy , 2003

Des ordres sociaux: marché et réciprocité dans l'Arctique, M.A., Département de sociologie, Université Laval, Québec, Canada, 145p.

Abstract

Ce mémoire s'intéresse au changement social au sein de la société inuit à travers un cas d'étude précis: l'approvisionnement alimentaire des ménages. Le champ d'observation est l'Arctique nord-américain. Les données de cette étude proviennent, d'une part, de la littérature portant sur les Inuit et, d'autre part, d'une enquête sur échantillon probabiliste intitulée Households food supply networks in the circumpolar Arctic, dont le questionnaire a été administré dans quatre régions de l'Arctique au cours des années 2000 et 2001. L'analyse de l'ensemble de ces données révèle que le recours au don et au marché sont deux pratiques contribuant au processus d'approvisionnement alimentaire des ménages inuit. Mais cette importance relative du don ne suffit pas cependant à assurer l'essentiel de l'approvisionnement alimentaire des ménages inuit; pour cela, ceux-ci doivent désormais compter sur le marché. Le regard sociologique nous a permis de constater que la société inuit participe encore à une reproduction sociétale d'ordre culturel, mais il semble que l'ordre économique exerce maintenant sur la société un ascendant important.

2003

Economic Changes, Household Strategies and Social Relations of Contemporary Nunavik Inuit. , Polar Record, United Kingdom, 39 (208) : 19-34.

Abstract

This article examines current economic practices of the Inuit of Nunavik and the consequences of these practices on social relations. In western societies, recourse to market and increasingly frequent use of money have been identified as major factors related to a decline in household production. These practices are also associated with a reduction of interpersonal dependency and with the emergence of instrumental rationality. In Nunavik, like in many Arctic regions, money and commodities represent an increasing portion of the economic resources of Inuit households. Household production also contributes substantially to their resources. An examination of the Inuit household budget shows a diversity of lifestyles supported by various economic activities and strategies that aim at satisfying material needs of family members. These strategies demonstrate that Inuit are economically rational and make use of monetary calculation. This rationality does not influence all economic behaviours, which are also motivated by traditional values and customary obligations. However, the emergence of diversity in lifestyles indicates the existence of a greater margin of self-determination for individuals.

Comtois, R. and G. Duhaime , 2003

Abandoned Mining Exploration Equipment in Nunavik. Methods to Identify and Locate Potential Sites, In: Rasmussen, R.O. & N.E. Koroleva (eds.), Social and Environmental Impacts in the North. Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop: Methods in Evaluation of Socio-Economic and Environmental Consequences of Mining and Energy Production in the Arctic and Sub-Arctic,, Apatity, Russia, from 8 to 12 May 2002. Kluwer, NATO Science Series IV (Earth and Environmental Sciences), Volume 31, pp. 353-367.

Abstract

Since the 1950s, the territory of Québec has been the site of important mining and exploration works. Prior to 1976, mining companies were not required to clean up exploration sites, and consequently there are a large number of abandoned mine and exploration sites where outdated equipment and empty drums has been left, just as the presence of oil and chemical wastes has become of concern for the Inuit populations due to health and environment hazards. The main challenge of the inventory project has been to develop methods which has enabled the location of the abandoned sites. The paper presents the different approaches to the problem, with details about techniques which have turned out to be effective.

Duhaime, G., R. Auclair, N. Bernard, D. St-Pierre, H. Myers and G. Hansen , 2003

Les réseaux d'approvisionnement alimentaire des ménages de l'Arctique nord-américain, Chaire de recherche du Canada sur la condition autochtone comparée, Collection recherche en ligne, Université Laval, Québec, Canada, 38p.

Abstract not available
Duhaime, G., N. Bernard, P. Fréchette, M. Maillé, A. Morin and A. Caron , 2003

The Mining Industry and the Social Stakes of Development in the Arctic, Canada Research Chair on Comparative Aboriginal Condition, Collection recherche en ligne, Université Laval, Québec, Canada, 20p.

Abstract not available
Statistique Canada , 2003

Enquête auprès des peuples autochtones 2001: guide des concepts et méthodes, Ottawa, Statistique Canada, catalogue no 89-591-XIF, 49p.

Abstract

Ce document vise à fournir aux utilisateurs une explication des concepts et des définitions utilisées dans l'Enquête auprès des peuples autochtones de 2001, qui a été menée de l'automne 2001 au printemps 2002. On y trouve aussi des détails techniques sur l'échantillonnage, le traitement des données, la qualité des donnés, etc. Dans le guide, on explique la relation entre l'Enquête auprès des peuples autochtones et le Recensement de 2001 et on souligne les différences importantes entre les données de ces deux sources. Le document comporte aussi une liste de produits.