Halley, P. et M. Verreault,
Environmental Law, Sustainable Development and Food Security in Nunavik,
In: Duhaime, G. (ed.), Sustainable Food Security in the Arctic. State of Knowledge. Edmonton, University of Alberta, CCI Press & GÉTIC, Occasional publications series no.52, pp. 177-188
This chapter discusses a large body of research involving provincial and Federal environmental law within the framework of sustainable development in Nunavik. The objective is to identify the links between environmental protection, economic development, natural resource management, and food security and identify how these links, under Canadian and Quebec law, affect the understanding and resolution of conflict pertaining to sustainable development in the region. A systemic approach is used for the study of sustainable development, in which close attention is paid to the ecological dimensions and their interactions with social and economic variables. Using this perspective, the legal framework for Nunavik is identified, and its effectiveness in ensuring ecosystem viability and stability explored. The results presented in this chapter are preliminary. Finally, our study identifies the politicized nature of research on the legal aspects of sustainable development and prospects tor future research.
Between Abundance and Scarcity: Food and the Institution of Sharing Among the Inuit of the Circumpolar Region During the Recent Historical Period,
In: Duhaime, G. (ed.), Sustainable Food Security in the Arctic. State of Knowledge. Edmonton, University of Alberta, CCI Press & GÉTIC, Occasional publications series no.52, pp. 103-115
This chapter outlines factors of change and continuity of food patterns among the Inuit of Northern Quebec. Arguments presented are based on a review of the literature on food acquisition, consumption, and distribution in the circumpolar Arctic over a hundred years. In this period, Inuit food dynamics have evolved along with other important aspects of their social and economic organization. Nutrition-related behaviours and practices have been modified or have disappeared altogether new ones have been integrated, some with success, others creating new problems and constraints. The establishment of trading posts and settlements, and introduction of firearms, and manufactured food products profoundly altered Inuit economics and Inuit ways in this regard, but today's social and food networks are still largely based on a logic and criteria. that were valid a hundred years ago. It is argued that in the Arctic, the basic trends and characteristics of the current Western formal economy are informed and supported in many ways by a continued Inuit rationality.
The Law and Aboriginal Reindeer Herding in Norway,
In: Duhaime, G. (ed.), Sustainable Food Security in the Arctic. State of Knowledge. Edmonton, University of Alberta, CCI Press & GÉTIC, Occasional publications series no.52, pp. 197-203
The legal framework of reindeer herding activities of the Sami people of Norway is used to consider food security and legal access to natural resources. A description of how the Sami became 'the reindeer people,' and how herding became their main source of self-identification, sets the stage to analyze how herding activities have changed into an Aboriginal industry. A last section of the paper is devoted to the economic and ecological problems related to reindeer herding. In the final analysis, it is argued that it must be the responsibility of Sami political institutions, the Samiting, to make choices concerning the future of Sami reindeer herding activities in Norway.
From Reindeer Stew to Pizza: The Displacement of Local Food Resources in Sapmi, Nothernmost Europe,
In: Duhaime, G. (ed.), Sustainable Food Security in the Arctic. State of Knowledge. Edmonton, University of Alberta, CCI Press & GÉTIC, Occasional publications series no.52, pp. 145-150
The gradual displacement of endogenous food resources - the reindeer stew - by food items that have exogenous origin and are globally marketed - the pizza -i s discussed by taking the Sami and their subarctic homeland, Sapmi, as an example. First is an examination of how the interrelationship among people, environment, resources, and food production can be linked to population density and carrying capacity in specific ecosystems. Secondly, a summary description of the historical Sami food household, based solely on subarctic fauna and flora resources is provided. Third, the modern process of exogenous food imports is presented by introducing the concepts of distant consumption and de-localization of resources. Finally, these concepts are applied to show the emerging local dependency on external resources and the resulting displacement of local resources with respect to their importance and values, economically and culturally, for Sami society.
The Changing Food Economy in Nunavut: Will Country Food Stores Secure Nunavut's Food Supply?,
In: Duhaime, G. (ed.), Sustainable Food Security in the Arctic. State of Knowledge. Edmonton, University of Alberta, CCI Press & GÉTIC, Occasional publications series no.52, pp. 95-101
The traditional Inuit food production economy has been influenced by a variety of events and circumstances, including the settlement in communities, the introduction of new hunting technologies and wage employment, the anti sealing lobby, and social policies and changes that have altered hunting and fishing, and sharing patterns. Yet the traditional economy has remained important to Inuit, and the Nunavut government has recognized the value of developing the renewable resource sector. Country food stores may be one way to meet several needs, economic development, provision of affordable and nutritious food, and continuation of Inuit cultural values. There have been several such outlets developed in the Northwest Territories, which have entered local, regional, territorial, national and international markets, some with impressive success. In Nunavut, two examples of country food outlets are examined, from Pond lnlet and Cambridge Bay, along with their philosophy, employment and sales patterns. These outlets and their apparent success, raise some interesting research questions, which are outlined at the end of the paper.
Inuit Subsistence Rights Under the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement: A Legal Perspective on Food Security in Nunavik,
In: Duhaime, G. (ed.), Sustainable Food Security in the Arctic. State of Knowledge. Edmonton, University of Alberta, CCI Press & GÉTIC, Occasional publications series no.52, pp. 189-195
This chapter outlines some of the key issues relating to the security of the subsistence rights of the Inuit in Nunavik. It is a part of a broader research question aimed at achieving a better understanding of how food security relates to legal security with regard to access to and use of country-food resources by Aboriginal people. Existing research underscores the importance of subsistence economies in the quest for sustainable development and food security in the Arctic. It also acknowledges the critical role played by Aboriginal land rights regimes in securing access to the land and its renewable resources. This chapter thus ascertains the legal foundations and scope of Inuit subsistence rights in Nunavik under the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement. It also briefly examines how these rights interact with other uses of the land and identifies potential insecurity generating features of the Agreements subsistence regime, which will require further analysis. Aspects of the broader legal environment likely to impact on the security of Inuit subsistence rights are also identified and targeted for more in-depth study.
Sustainable Development, Food Security and Aboriginal Self-Government in the Circumpolar North,
In: Duhaime, G. (ed.), Sustainable Food Security in the Arctic. State of Knowledge. Edmonton, University of Alberta, CCI Press & GÉTIC, Occasional publications series no.52, pp. 205-225
This chapter explores the issues of Aboriginal self-government and sustainable development with a particular focus on aspects relevant to food security. The essay develops, describes, and compares self-government initiatives in Canada, Alaska, Greenland and the Scandinavian countries with respect to the management of wildlife and fisheries; environmental assessment and protection; harvester support programs; and, economic development which focuses on commercial production and marketing of country food. Two main principles are employed to compare these arrangements, their support for indigenous cultures, and the degree to which they provide Aboriginal people with real ability to make decisions or to influence decision-making processes. The analysis shows that self-government arrangements in the circumpolar region vary both within and between countries. While none of the arrangements provide Aboriginal people with jurisdiction over their territory, some do create co-management regimes and advisory structures which provide for the inclusion of Aboriginal concerns in the policy-making process. At the same time, the challenge of integrating Aboriginal decision-making systems, knowledge, and values into structures of governance, which reflect western cultures and which rely on western science, has not been explicitly addressed in any of these arrangements. In all of the areas examined, there are continuing questions about resolving conflicts between development and the protection of subsistence economies.
Rasmussen, Rasmus Ole,
Food Consumption Patterns and Local Markets in the Arctic,
In: Duhaime, G. (ed.), Sustainable Food Security in the Arctic. State of Knowledge. Edmonton, University of Alberta, CCI Press & GÉTIC, Occasional publications series no.52, pp. 117-143
In many parts of the Arctic, imported low quality foods seem to have replaced high quality locally produced food. In the case of Greenland, however, another situation is dominating. Here, local informal markets, in existence for a very long time, not only continue to play an important role in the local economy, but also caused the local agenda to be directed to the commercial sector. The issue examined in this paper is the evolution of food markets in Greenland, and the relationship between imported and locally produced food. A major question is how consumer behaviour is reflected in consumption patterns. The study begins with an exploration of how the issue has been treated in the literature. Next is an analysis of the food supply situation in Greenland by means of different statistics sources, with special emphasis on the connection between the formal and the informal sectors in relation to food production and consumption. The main purpose of the paper is to arrive at a general understanding of the problems of market economies in remote regions, and of the dynamics between the commercial and the non-commercial markets in relation to food supply and food consumption patterns. One major conclusion of the study is that the informal market drives the local agenda and consumers' preferences are visible in economies characterized by monopolies, enabling local products to be maintained as important food items.
Winther, G. et G. Duhaime,
Cooperatives Societies in Greenland and Nunavik. A Lesson of the Importance of Supporting Structures,
Journal of Rural Cooperation, 30 (1): 25-41.
We present different types of cooperatives in Greenland and Nunavik, Canada, in order to assess two different developments. A first approach to comparisons leads to an anomaly suggesting the necessity of empirical analysis in the two regions. Why is it that Greenland never really managed to create a cooperative movement? Except for consumer cooperatives, the remaining types of supply and worker cooperatives were a failure. There were isolated success stories for a limited period of time, but the general picture remains the same. Most of these cooperatives are liquidated, and we never saw multi-purpose cooperatives established. Quite the contrary took place in Nunavik, in the northern part of Québec in Canada. Here we saw a viable cooperative movement, and everywhere local communities established multipurpose cooperatives. At the same time a strong cooperative association evolved. It seems that cooperative supporting structures are essential to a cooperative success in an Arctic region.
De la production domestique au marché: l'économie contemporaine des familles inuit du Nunavik,
Ph.D., Département de sociologie, Université Laval, Québec, Canada, 503p.
Cette étude s'intéresse aux transformations récentes des pratiques économiques des ménages inuit. Les comportements de consommation de ces derniers sont examinés dans le but de comprendre la rationalité qui fonde leurs actions. L'étude repose sur une estimation et une caractérisation de leurs transactions monétaires et non monétaires annuelles, dont les données sont tirées d'une enquête originale réalisée en 1995 auprès d'un échantillon de 47 ménages dans deux villages du Nunavik (Québec, Canada). L'analyse montre que l'économie vivrière conserve une place significative au plan social, culturel et économique, bien que la rnarchandisation de la vie quotidienne et la monétisation des ressources caractérisent aussi l'économie de ces ménages. De plus, les Inuit sont économiquement rationnels et appliquent couramment le calcul monétaire. Cependant les valeurs et normes traditionnelles influencent largement leurs pratiques de consommation. L'analyse permet de conclure que la société contemporaine au Nunavik, bien qu'elle participe au marché, ne peut être assimilée à la culture de consommation.