Publications

Chabot, Marcelle, 2004

Consumption and Standards of Living of the Québec Inuit: Cultural Permanence and Discontinuities, Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 41(2): 147-170.

Résumé This study explores some recent trends in the economic practices of the Inuit of Nunavik (Quebec, Canada). It is based on a characterization of the monetary and non-monetary transactions made by a sample of 38 Inuit households in 1995. The analyses show that the Inuit are highly dependent on manufactured goods. The rise in income has allowed for more discretionary income; however, analyses suggest that current economic conditions place limitations on the development of individual wants and aspirations, as well as play a significant role in encouraging traditional norms of conduct. It is suggested that material conditions and values mutually reinforce one another to reduce the penetration of a consumer culture.

Chabot, M. et G. Duhaime (et al.), 2004

The Impacts of Dietary Changes Among the Inuit of Nunavik (Canada): A Socioeconomic Assessment of Possible Public Health Recommendations Dealing with Food Contamination, Risk Analysis, 24(4), 1007-1118.

Résumé Inuit populations meet a large portion of their food needs by eating country food in which pollutants are concentrated. Despite the fact that they contain pollutants, the consumption of country food has many health, social, economic, and cultural benefits. A risk determination process was set up in order to help regional health authorities of Nunavik to deal with this particular issue. Based on Nunavik health authorities' objectives to encourage the region's inhabitants to change their dietary habits, and on both the risks and the benefits of eating country food, several management options were developed. The options aimed at reducing exposure to contaminants by either substituting certain foods with others that have a lower contaminant content or by store-bought foods. This article aims at assessing the potential economic impact of these risk management options before being implemented. Relevant economic data (aggregate income and monetary outlays for the purchase of food and equipment required for food production by households) were collected and identified to serve as a backdrop for the various replacement scenarios. Results show that household budgets, and the regional economy, are not significantly affected by the replacement of contaminated foods with the purchase of store-bought meat, and even less so if the solution involves replacing contaminated foods with other types of game hunted in the region. When financial support is provided by the state, the households can even gain some monetary benefits. Results show that public health authorities' recommended changes to dietary habits among the Inuit of Nunavik would not necessarily involve economic constraints for Inuit households.

Duhaime, Gérard, 2004

Circumpolar Socio-Economic Comparisons. A Tool for Better Governance, In Northern Research Forum. Northern Veche. Veliky Novgorod, NRF: 175-178.

Résumé non disponible

Duhaime, Gérard (et al.), 2004

Economic Systems, In: Arctic Human Development Report, Arctic Council., O. Young et N. Einarsson (dir.), Arctic Human Development Report, Reykjavik, Iceland, pp 69-84.

Résumé The formal economy of the Arctic is mainly based on large-scale exploitation of natural resources (e.g. mineral, oil and gas, and fish), most of which are exported. The service sector is well developed in many parts of the Arctic, whereas manufacturing plays a relatively minor role. Public services are often supported by transfer payments from central governments but overall, more money is flowing out of the Arctic than into the region. The large-scale exploitation of Arctic resources is important to the national economies of several Arctic countries, as well as in the global economy. This is especially true for the Russian Arctic. The size and structure of the economy differ between and within countries. The gaps between wealthy and poor regions appear everywhere but are most extreme in Russia and North America. The Arctic is likely to continue to play a role as a reservoir of resources for the rest of the world. New trends are privatization of resources and new forms of economic partnerships.

Duhaime, Gérard, 2004

La situation socio-économique du Nunavik et l'avenir de l'État, Communication présentée dans le cadre des Forums régionaux sur l'avenir du Québec, Kuujjuaq, 17 juin 2004. Chaire de recherche du Canada sur la condition autochtone comparée, Collection Recherche en ligne, Université Laval, Québec, Canada, 15p.

Résumé non disponible

Duhaime, Gérard, 2004

Social and Economic Situation of Nunavik and the Future of State, Paper presented in the Forums régionaux sur l'avenir du Québec, Kuujjuaq, June 17, 2004, Canada Research Chair on Comparative Aboriginal Condition, Collection Recherche en ligne, Université Laval, Québec, Canada, 14p.

Résumé non disponible

Duhaime, G., J. Baert et L. Ampleman, 2004

Gestion intégrée des réseaux de transport dans le Nord-Du-Québec, Chaire de recherche du Canada sur la condition autochtone comparée, Collection Recherche en ligne, Université Laval, Québec, Canada, 104p.

Résumé non disponible

Duhaime, G., E. Searles, P. Usher, H. Myers et P. Fréchette, 2004

Social Cohesion and Living Conditions in the Canadian Arctic: From Theory to Measurement, Social Indicators Research, 66(3), 295-317

Résumé Social cohesion has emerged as a powerful hybrid concept used by academics and policy analysts. Academics use the concept to underline the social and economic failings of modernity, linking it to the decline of communal values and civic participation. Policy analysts use it to highlight the social and economic inequities caused by globalization. The desired effect of using this concept is often to influence governments to implement policies that will enhance social cohesion by reducing social and economic disparities. Despite its widespread use, however, statistical measures of social cohesion tend to overlook local, non-Western strategies of social inclusion as well as the social impact of non-Western economic systems, such as the mixed economy typical of many Aboriginal communities in North America. In this paper, we develop a model of social cohesion that addresses these omissions through the use of social indicators that measure both the behavior and perceptions of Inuit living in the Canadian Arctic with respect to the social, cultural and economic conditions of Arctic communities. We explain how and why measuring social cohesion is optimized by combining both culturally-specific and non-specific social indicators.

Auclair, Rémy, 2003

Des ordres sociaux: marché et réciprocité dans l'Arctique, M.A., Département de sociologie, Université Laval, Québec, Canada, 145p.

Résumé Ce mémoire s'intéresse au changement social au sein de la société inuit à travers un cas d'étude précis: l'approvisionnement alimentaire des ménages. Le champ d'observation est l'Arctique nord-américain. Les données de cette étude proviennent, d'une part, de la littérature portant sur les Inuit et, d'autre part, d'une enquête sur échantillon probabiliste intitulée Households food supply networks in the circumpolar Arctic, dont le questionnaire a été administré dans quatre régions de l'Arctique au cours des années 2000 et 2001. L'analyse de l'ensemble de ces données révèle que le recours au don et au marché sont deux pratiques contribuant au processus d'approvisionnement alimentaire des ménages inuit. Mais cette importance relative du don ne suffit pas cependant à assurer l'essentiel de l'approvisionnement alimentaire des ménages inuit; pour cela, ceux-ci doivent désormais compter sur le marché. Le regard sociologique nous a permis de constater que la société inuit participe encore à une reproduction sociétale d'ordre culturel, mais il semble que l'ordre économique exerce maintenant sur la société un ascendant important.

Chabot, Marcelle, 2003

Economic Changes, Household Strategies and Social Relations of Contemporary Nunavik Inuit. , Polar Record, United Kingdom, 39 (208) : 19-34.

Résumé This article examines current economic practices of the Inuit of Nunavik and the consequences of these practices on social relations. In western societies, recourse to market and increasingly frequent use of money have been identified as major factors related to a decline in household production. These practices are also associated with a reduction of interpersonal dependency and with the emergence of instrumental rationality. In Nunavik, like in many Arctic regions, money and commodities represent an increasing portion of the economic resources of Inuit households. Household production also contributes substantially to their resources. An examination of the Inuit household budget shows a diversity of lifestyles supported by various economic activities and strategies that aim at satisfying material needs of family members. These strategies demonstrate that Inuit are economically rational and make use of monetary calculation. This rationality does not influence all economic behaviours, which are also motivated by traditional values and customary obligations. However, the emergence of diversity in lifestyles indicates the existence of a greater margin of self-determination for individuals.
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