Duhaime, G., E. Searles, P. Usher, H. Myers et P. Fréchette, 2004

Social Cohesion and Living Conditions in the Canadian Arctic: From Theory to Measurement, Social Indicators Research, 66(3), 295-317

Résumé Social cohesion has emerged as a powerful hybrid concept used by academics and policy analysts. Academics use the concept to underline the social and economic failings of modernity, linking it to the decline of communal values and civic participation. Policy analysts use it to highlight the social and economic inequities caused by globalization. The desired effect of using this concept is often to influence governments to implement policies that will enhance social cohesion by reducing social and economic disparities. Despite its widespread use, however, statistical measures of social cohesion tend to overlook local, non-Western strategies of social inclusion as well as the social impact of non-Western economic systems, such as the mixed economy typical of many Aboriginal communities in North America. In this paper, we develop a model of social cohesion that addresses these omissions through the use of social indicators that measure both the behavior and perceptions of Inuit living in the Canadian Arctic with respect to the social, cultural and economic conditions of Arctic communities. We explain how and why measuring social cohesion is optimized by combining both culturally-specific and non-specific social indicators.

Comtois, R. et G. Duhaime, 2003

Abandoned Mining Exploration Equipment in Nunavik. Methods to Identify and Locate Potential Sites, In: Rasmussen, R.O. & N.E. Koroleva (eds.), Social and Environmental Impacts in the North. Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop: Methods in Evaluation of Socio-Economic and Environmental Consequences of Mining and Energy Production in the Arctic and Sub-Arctic,, Apatity, Russia, from 8 to 12 May 2002. Kluwer, NATO Science Series IV (Earth and Environmental Sciences), Volume 31, pp. 353-367.

Résumé Since the 1950s, the territory of Québec has been the site of important mining and exploration works. Prior to 1976, mining companies were not required to clean up exploration sites, and consequently there are a large number of abandoned mine and exploration sites where outdated equipment and empty drums has been left, just as the presence of oil and chemical wastes has become of concern for the Inuit populations due to health and environment hazards. The main challenge of the inventory project has been to develop methods which has enabled the location of the abandoned sites. The paper presents the different approaches to the problem, with details about techniques which have turned out to be effective.

Duhaime, G., R. Auclair, N. Bernard, D. St-Pierre, H. Myers et G. Hansen, 2003

Les réseaux d'approvisionnement alimentaire des ménages de l'Arctique nord-américain, Chaire de recherche du Canada sur la condition autochtone comparée, Collection recherche en ligne, Université Laval, Québec, Canada, 38p.

Résumé non disponible

Duhaime, G., N. Bernard, P. Fréchette, M. Maillé, A. Morin et A. Caron, 2003

The Mining Industry and the Social Stakes of Development in the Arctic, Canada Research Chair on Comparative Aboriginal Condition, Collection recherche en ligne, Université Laval, Québec, Canada, 20p.

Résumé non disponible

Usher, P., G. Duhaime et E. Searles, 2003

The household as an Economic Unit in Arctic Aboriginal Communities and its Measurement by Means of a Comprehensive survey, Social Indicators Research, 61(2): 175-202.

Résumé Northern aboriginal communities are widely recognized as having mixed, subsistence-based economies. The chief characteristic of this economy, aside from the contribution of subsistence harvesting and related activities to household well-being, is that the household operates as a "micro-enterprise" that is the basic unit of production as well as consumption. This economic form has persisted into the present day, contrary to the predictions of many social scientists and policy-makers. This paper outlines a model of the household in mixed, subsistence-based economies, and describes its characteristics and activities. While the discussion focuses on northern Canada, the model is thought to apply generally in the circumpolar North. Quantitative measurement of northern aboriginal household characteristics and activities has been limited, however, because national and regional data collection systems are not designed specifically to capture these phenomena. The model is therefore based primarily on the results of in-depth case studies, and the systematic measurement of subsistence harvesting. This paper describes the development, for the first time, of a questionnaire specifically designed to document quantitatively the key characteristics of the household economy as part of a comprehensive survey of living conditions in the circumpolar Arctic.

Chabot, M., G. Duhaime et M. Gaudreault, 2002

Food Consumption Patterns and Socioeconomic Factors Among the Inuit of Nunavik, Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 41(2): 91-118.

Résumé This article examines the dietary patterns of the Inuit of Nunavik, based on data from a 1992 Government of Quebec survey. Using data primarily from the Food Frequency questionnaire on a sample of 178 women between 18 and 74 years of age, the study investigates the role of various socioeconomic factors and the influence of the socioeconomic status of the household to which each woman belongs. These factors are analyzed in relation to the proportion of traditional or industrial foods consumed by respondents. The study shows that the presence of a male head of the household and, to a lesser extent, access to an income, raise the proportion of country foods in the diet. Other findings reveal that the main mechanisms for the distribution of country foods, such as sharing practices and a community freezer, play a significant role, but do not compensate when the above two conditions are not found in households.

Duhaime, Gérard, 2002

Food Networks in the North American Arctic, In: Duhaime, G. (ed.), Sustainable Food Security in the Arctic. State of Knowledge. Edmonton, University of Alberta, CCI Press & GÉTIC, Occasional publications series no.52, pp. 63-74

Résumé This chapter presents the state of our knowledge about the formal economy of food security in the Arctic. It explains the main characteristics of food markets in different Arctic regions, and addresses such questions as: what businesses are involved (private, public, local, national, international, etc.)? What is the structure of the supply chain (import/export, links from the producers to retail stores)? Is local food sold in the formal market (products of renewable resource exploitation and local manufacture, when available)? Are the food chains well established and reliable, or new and fragile? etc. This is the first time an effort is made to synthesize such issues, usually considered under the single angle of the hunting and fishing production in the Arctic. This work provides solid basis for evaluating this key component of food supply and consumption, even if it concludes that more research has to be done to have a complete picture.

Duhaime, Gérard, 2002

Sustainable Food Security in the Arctic: State of Knowledge, In: Duhaime, G. (ed.), Sustainable Food Security in the Arctic. State of Knowledge. Edmonton, University of Alberta, CCI Press & GÉTIC, Occasional publications series no.52, 252p.

Résumé non disponible

Duhaime, G. et A. Godmaire, 2002

Les modèles du développement du Nord. Analyse exploratoire au Québec isolé, Recherches sociographiques, 43(2): 329-351.

Résumé Dispersées dans tout le Québec non urbanisés, quelque 80 agglomérations dites du « Québec isolé » forment des regroupements ethnogéographiques aux contours flous dont les destins socioéconomiques sont très différents. Cette étude examine les modèles de développement de ces communautés. Elle est fondée sur une analyse comparative détaillée de plusieurs dizaines de variables portant sur la démographie, l'éducation, la santé, le logement, le revenu personnel, les dépenses publiques, les activités économiques. Neuf indicateurs clés sont analysés ici. L'étude montre que ces réalités forment quatre modèles de développement, qui se distinguent principalement suivant le type d'exploitation des ressources naturelles et les caractéristiques de la population. Dans les régions où l'exploitation des ressources est pratiquée à grande échelle, les populations bénéficient des retombées économiques du développement. Mais elles le font selon des modalités différentes, directement parce que les familles en ont fait leur gagne-pain, ou indirectement parce que les populations en cause ont pu capitaliser sur l'attrait des ressources. Dans les régions où l'exploitation des ressources est pratiquée à petite échelle, où la prospérité n'est plus assurée par des mécanismes autrefois efficaces, la situation générale se détériore non seulement parce que l'infrastructure économique demeure faible, mais aussi parce que les populations n'ont pas de poids politique pour qu'il en soit autrement. Dans cette perspective, le facteur ethnique serait un déterminant bien moins important que la présence de richesses massives et la capacité d'en tirer localement partie.

Duhaime, G. et A. Godmaire, 2002

The Conditions of Sustainable Food Security. An Integrated Conceptual Framework, In: Duhaime, G. (ed.), Sustainable Food Security in the Arctic. State of Knowledge. Edmonton, University of Alberta, CCI Press & GÉTIC, Occasional publications series no.52, pp. 15-45

Résumé Based upon a review of the world literature, this chapter presents an integrated conceptual framework of the conditions of food security. The systemic model provides definitions of the principal variables, as well as explanations and illustrations of their mutual - and most of the time multidimensional - relationships. The fundamental framework is that food security and food insecurity (both being potentially sustainable or not) is the result of the relations between social factors (demography, health), intermediating mechanism (food production and circulation in the market and the non-market spheres), and food consumption determinants (accessibility, availability). The framework is drawn here in order to provide the readers with a tool to situate each of the following chapters into a global context, to provide the analytical tool that will guide the synthesis of this book which is presented in the last chapter
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