Publications

Chabot, M., G. Duhaime and M. Gaudreault, 2002

Food Consumption Patterns and Socioeconomic Factors Among the Inuit of Nunavik, Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 41(2): 91-118.

Abstract This article examines the dietary patterns of the Inuit of Nunavik, based on data from a 1992 Government of Quebec survey. Using data primarily from the Food Frequency questionnaire on a sample of 178 women between 18 and 74 years of age, the study investigates the role of various socioeconomic factors and the influence of the socioeconomic status of the household to which each woman belongs. These factors are analyzed in relation to the proportion of traditional or industrial foods consumed by respondents. The study shows that the presence of a male head of the household and, to a lesser extent, access to an income, raise the proportion of country foods in the diet. Other findings reveal that the main mechanisms for the distribution of country foods, such as sharing practices and a community freezer, play a significant role, but do not compensate when the above two conditions are not found in households.

Duhaime, Gérard, 2002

Food Networks in the North American Arctic, In: Duhaime, G. (ed.), Sustainable Food Security in the Arctic. State of Knowledge. Edmonton, University of Alberta, CCI Press & GÉTIC, Occasional publications series no.52, pp. 63-74

Abstract This chapter presents the state of our knowledge about the formal economy of food security in the Arctic. It explains the main characteristics of food markets in different Arctic regions, and addresses such questions as: what businesses are involved (private, public, local, national, international, etc.)? What is the structure of the supply chain (import/export, links from the producers to retail stores)? Is local food sold in the formal market (products of renewable resource exploitation and local manufacture, when available)? Are the food chains well established and reliable, or new and fragile? etc. This is the first time an effort is made to synthesize such issues, usually considered under the single angle of the hunting and fishing production in the Arctic. This work provides solid basis for evaluating this key component of food supply and consumption, even if it concludes that more research has to be done to have a complete picture.

Duhaime, Gérard, 2002

Sustainable Food Security in the Arctic: State of Knowledge, In: Duhaime, G. (ed.), Sustainable Food Security in the Arctic. State of Knowledge. Edmonton, University of Alberta, CCI Press & GÉTIC, Occasional publications series no.52, 252p.

Abstract not available

Duhaime, G. and A. Godmaire, 2002

Les modèles du développement du Nord. Analyse exploratoire au Québec isolé, Recherches sociographiques, 43(2): 329-351.

Abstract Dispersées dans tout le Québec non urbanisés, quelque 80 agglomérations dites du « Québec isolé » forment des regroupements ethnogéographiques aux contours flous dont les destins socioéconomiques sont très différents. Cette étude examine les modèles de développement de ces communautés. Elle est fondée sur une analyse comparative détaillée de plusieurs dizaines de variables portant sur la démographie, l'éducation, la santé, le logement, le revenu personnel, les dépenses publiques, les activités économiques. Neuf indicateurs clés sont analysés ici. L'étude montre que ces réalités forment quatre modèles de développement, qui se distinguent principalement suivant le type d'exploitation des ressources naturelles et les caractéristiques de la population. Dans les régions où l'exploitation des ressources est pratiquée à grande échelle, les populations bénéficient des retombées économiques du développement. Mais elles le font selon des modalités différentes, directement parce que les familles en ont fait leur gagne-pain, ou indirectement parce que les populations en cause ont pu capitaliser sur l'attrait des ressources. Dans les régions où l'exploitation des ressources est pratiquée à petite échelle, où la prospérité n'est plus assurée par des mécanismes autrefois efficaces, la situation générale se détériore non seulement parce que l'infrastructure économique demeure faible, mais aussi parce que les populations n'ont pas de poids politique pour qu'il en soit autrement. Dans cette perspective, le facteur ethnique serait un déterminant bien moins important que la présence de richesses massives et la capacité d'en tirer localement partie.

Duhaime, G. and A. Godmaire, 2002

The Conditions of Sustainable Food Security. An Integrated Conceptual Framework, In: Duhaime, G. (ed.), Sustainable Food Security in the Arctic. State of Knowledge. Edmonton, University of Alberta, CCI Press & GÉTIC, Occasional publications series no.52, pp. 15-45

Abstract Based upon a review of the world literature, this chapter presents an integrated conceptual framework of the conditions of food security. The systemic model provides definitions of the principal variables, as well as explanations and illustrations of their mutual - and most of the time multidimensional - relationships. The fundamental framework is that food security and food insecurity (both being potentially sustainable or not) is the result of the relations between social factors (demography, health), intermediating mechanism (food production and circulation in the market and the non-market spheres), and food consumption determinants (accessibility, availability). The framework is drawn here in order to provide the readers with a tool to situate each of the following chapters into a global context, to provide the analytical tool that will guide the synthesis of this book which is presented in the last chapter

Halley, P. and M. Verreault, 2002

Environmental Law, Sustainable Development and Food Security in Nunavik, In: Duhaime, G. (ed.), Sustainable Food Security in the Arctic. State of Knowledge. Edmonton, University of Alberta, CCI Press & GÉTIC, Occasional publications series no.52, pp. 177-188

Abstract This chapter discusses a large body of research involving provincial and Federal environmental law within the framework of sustainable development in Nunavik. The objective is to identify the links between environmental protection, economic development, natural resource management, and food security and identify how these links, under Canadian and Quebec law, affect the understanding and resolution of conflict pertaining to sustainable development in the region. A systemic approach is used for the study of sustainable development, in which close attention is paid to the ecological dimensions and their interactions with social and economic variables. Using this perspective, the legal framework for Nunavik is identified, and its effectiveness in ensuring ecosystem viability and stability explored. The results presented in this chapter are preliminary. Finally, our study identifies the politicized nature of research on the legal aspects of sustainable development and prospects tor future research.

Levesque, Carole, 2002

Between Abundance and Scarcity: Food and the Institution of Sharing Among the Inuit of the Circumpolar Region During the Recent Historical Period, In: Duhaime, G. (ed.), Sustainable Food Security in the Arctic. State of Knowledge. Edmonton, University of Alberta, CCI Press & GÉTIC, Occasional publications series no.52, pp. 103-115

Abstract This chapter outlines factors of change and continuity of food patterns among the Inuit of Northern Quebec. Arguments presented are based on a review of the literature on food acquisition, consumption, and distribution in the circumpolar Arctic over a hundred years. In this period, Inuit food dynamics have evolved along with other important aspects of their social and economic organization. Nutrition-related behaviours and practices have been modified or have disappeared altogether new ones have been integrated, some with success, others creating new problems and constraints. The establishment of trading posts and settlements, and introduction of firearms, and manufactured food products profoundly altered Inuit economics and Inuit ways in this regard, but today's social and food networks are still largely based on a logic and criteria. that were valid a hundred years ago. It is argued that in the Arctic, the basic trends and characteristics of the current Western formal economy are informed and supported in many ways by a continued Inuit rationality.

Melkevik, Bjarne, 2002

The Law and Aboriginal Reindeer Herding in Norway, In: Duhaime, G. (ed.), Sustainable Food Security in the Arctic. State of Knowledge. Edmonton, University of Alberta, CCI Press & GÉTIC, Occasional publications series no.52, pp. 197-203

Abstract The legal framework of reindeer herding activities of the Sami people of Norway is used to consider food security and legal access to natural resources. A description of how the Sami became 'the reindeer people,' and how herding became their main source of self-identification, sets the stage to analyze how herding activities have changed into an Aboriginal industry. A last section of the paper is devoted to the economic and ecological problems related to reindeer herding. In the final analysis, it is argued that it must be the responsibility of Sami political institutions, the Samiting, to make choices concerning the future of Sami reindeer herding activities in Norway.

Müller-Wille, Ludger, 2002

From Reindeer Stew to Pizza: The Displacement of Local Food Resources in Sapmi, Nothernmost Europe, In: Duhaime, G. (ed.), Sustainable Food Security in the Arctic. State of Knowledge. Edmonton, University of Alberta, CCI Press & GÉTIC, Occasional publications series no.52, pp. 145-150

Abstract The gradual displacement of endogenous food resources - the reindeer stew - by food items that have exogenous origin and are globally marketed - the pizza -i s discussed by taking the Sami and their subarctic homeland, Sapmi, as an example. First is an examination of how the interrelationship among people, environment, resources, and food production can be linked to population density and carrying capacity in specific ecosystems. Secondly, a summary description of the historical Sami food household, based solely on subarctic fauna and flora resources is provided. Third, the modern process of exogenous food imports is presented by introducing the concepts of distant consumption and de-localization of resources. Finally, these concepts are applied to show the emerging local dependency on external resources and the resulting displacement of local resources with respect to their importance and values, economically and culturally, for Sami society.

Myers, Heather, 2002

The Changing Food Economy in Nunavut: Will Country Food Stores Secure Nunavut's Food Supply?, In: Duhaime, G. (ed.), Sustainable Food Security in the Arctic. State of Knowledge. Edmonton, University of Alberta, CCI Press & GÉTIC, Occasional publications series no.52, pp. 95-101

Abstract The traditional Inuit food production economy has been influenced by a variety of events and circumstances, including the settlement in communities, the introduction of new hunting technologies and wage employment, the anti sealing lobby, and social policies and changes that have altered hunting and fishing, and sharing patterns. Yet the traditional economy has remained important to Inuit, and the Nunavut government has recognized the value of developing the renewable resource sector. Country food stores may be one way to meet several needs, economic development, provision of affordable and nutritious food, and continuation of Inuit cultural values. There have been several such outlets developed in the Northwest Territories, which have entered local, regional, territorial, national and international markets, some with impressive success. In Nunavut, two examples of country food outlets are examined, from Pond lnlet and Cambridge Bay, along with their philosophy, employment and sales patterns. These outlets and their apparent success, raise some interesting research questions, which are outlined at the end of the paper.
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