Statistique Canada, 2003

Enquête auprès des peuples autochtones de 2001, première diffusion: tableaux de soutien, Ottawa, Statistique Canada, catalogue no 89-592-XIF, 90p.

Abstract L'Enquête auprès des peuples autochtones de 2001 (EAPA) est une enquête postcensitaire incluant les adultes et les enfants ayant déclaré lors du recensement une ascendance autochtone, une identité autochtone, un statut d'Indien inscrit et/ou une appartenance à une bande. Environ 76 000 adultes et 41 000 enfants vivant dans des ménages privés des provinces et des territoires ont été choisis pour participer à l'enquête. Les données ont été recueillies de septembre 2001 à janvier 2002. Ces tableaux contiennent des données sur la santé, l'éducation, les pensionnats et la langue de la population d'identité autochtone (de 15 ans et plus) vivant hors réserve, pour le Canada, les provinces et les territoires. En outre, on fournit les données de groupes autochtones en particulier (les Indiens de l'Amérique du Nord, les Métis et les Inuits) pour quelques variables.

Usher, P., G. Duhaime and E. Searles, 2003

The household as an Economic Unit in Arctic Aboriginal Communities and its Measurement by Means of a Comprehensive survey, Social Indicators Research, 61(2): 175-202.

Abstract Northern aboriginal communities are widely recognized as having mixed, subsistence-based economies. The chief characteristic of this economy, aside from the contribution of subsistence harvesting and related activities to household well-being, is that the household operates as a "micro-enterprise" that is the basic unit of production as well as consumption. This economic form has persisted into the present day, contrary to the predictions of many social scientists and policy-makers. This paper outlines a model of the household in mixed, subsistence-based economies, and describes its characteristics and activities. While the discussion focuses on northern Canada, the model is thought to apply generally in the circumpolar North. Quantitative measurement of northern aboriginal household characteristics and activities has been limited, however, because national and regional data collection systems are not designed specifically to capture these phenomena. The model is therefore based primarily on the results of in-depth case studies, and the systematic measurement of subsistence harvesting. This paper describes the development, for the first time, of a questionnaire specifically designed to document quantitatively the key characteristics of the household economy as part of a comprehensive survey of living conditions in the circumpolar Arctic.

Arbour, Jean-Maurice, 2002

Food Secutity in the Arctic and International Environmental Law: A General Framework, In: Duhaime, G. (ed.), Sustainable Food Security in the Arctic. State of Knowledge. Edmonton, University of Alberta, CCI Press & GÉTIC, Occasional publications series no.52, pp. 153-175

Abstract It is impossible to guarantee food security in the Arctic if problems relating to the protection of the environment on the one hand, and the promotion of a sustainable development on the other, are not taken into consideration by governments and people. As major sources of pollution in the Arctic originate both within and outside the region, the eight Arctic countries must work together to address common concerns. While global problems like the depletion of the ozone layer, transboundary air pollution, and global warming requite global solutions, the establishment of regional programs seems more appropriate to solve problems particular to Arctic countries. From the standpoint of international law, environmental problems and problems relating to sustainable development transcend national boundaries. The role of international law is to provide mechanisms to facilitate cooperation between nation states, negotiate the legal norms, regulate the use of resources, settle disputes, supervise implementation of treaties and amend existing treaties through the introduction of new norms. The object of this chapter is to portray the general framework of international environmental law applicable to the Arctic. As regards problems specific to the circumpolar region, there exists a substantial body of instruments that deal with various aspects of the Arctic environment. In the final report, an attempt will be made to measure the effectiveness of existing treaties and identify the legal gaps to be filled in order to assure food security in the Arctic.

Blanchet, Carole, 2002

Diet Profile of Circumpolar Inuit, In: Duhaime, G. (ed.), Sustainable Food Security in the Arctic. State of Knowledge. Edmonton, University of Alberta, CCI Press & GÉTIC, Occasional publications series no.52, pp. 47-60

Abstract Nutrition surveys conducted in the Arctic indicate major variations in nutrient intake among Inuit from different regions. However, no studies have been undertaken to evaluate the importance of these differences or similarities in term of nutrient intakes. In order to provide a basis for comparison of the different Arctic regions, a profile of food consumption and nutritional patterns for each circumpolar region is required. The main objective of this chapter was to describe Inuit diet and estimate nutritional values for each region (Canada, Alaska, Greenland, Siberia), and to study trends over rime. To do this, an inventory was taken of all nutritional surveys conducted on Inuit populations in the circumpolar Arctic, as well as a review of the different survey methods used, and standardized data compiled. For interregional comparisons, only the most recent and most complete surveys were considered. However, the more dated surveys served to establish temporal trends. Mean consumption leve1s, energy and nutrient intakes were measured according to gender and age. The contribution of traditional and market foods to energy and nutrient intakes were also assessed. Finally, the principal diet changes occurring in Inuit populations in the last decades were put in perspective to identify the ideal conditions in which an optimal diet can be secured.

Caulfield, Richard A., 2002

Food Security in Artic Alaska: A Preliminary Assessment, In: Duhaime, G. (ed.), Sustainable Food Security in the Arctic. State of Knowledge. Edmonton, University of Alberta, CCI Press & GÉTIC, Occasional publications series no.52, pp. 75-92

Abstract Alaska's Arctic communities have a dynamic mixed economy that is central to understanding food security and sustainable development. In this economy, cash and country food production are mutually supportive. Country foods are vital to nutritional, economic, and cultural development in Alaska's Aboriginal communities. Research in northern Alaska shows that they are widely obtained, consumed, and shared within families and communities. At the same time, imported foods offer a wide array of nutritional choices. However, they are often expensive, their availability can be uncertain, and their quality can vary greatly. This paper describes Alaska's northern most regions and discusses this mixed economy as it relates to food security and safety. It highlights five major issues affecting food security in northern Alaska: subsistence conflicts, contaminants in country foods, global climate change, industrial development and habitat degradation, and animal rights activism. It also points to additional research needs important to understanding Alaska's food security in a circumpolar context.

Chabot, M., G. Duhaime and M. Gaudreault, 2002

Food Consumption Patterns and Socioeconomic Factors Among the Inuit of Nunavik, Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 41(2): 91-118.

Abstract This article examines the dietary patterns of the Inuit of Nunavik, based on data from a 1992 Government of Quebec survey. Using data primarily from the Food Frequency questionnaire on a sample of 178 women between 18 and 74 years of age, the study investigates the role of various socioeconomic factors and the influence of the socioeconomic status of the household to which each woman belongs. These factors are analyzed in relation to the proportion of traditional or industrial foods consumed by respondents. The study shows that the presence of a male head of the household and, to a lesser extent, access to an income, raise the proportion of country foods in the diet. Other findings reveal that the main mechanisms for the distribution of country foods, such as sharing practices and a community freezer, play a significant role, but do not compensate when the above two conditions are not found in households.

Duhaime, Gérard, 2002

Food Networks in the North American Arctic, In: Duhaime, G. (ed.), Sustainable Food Security in the Arctic. State of Knowledge. Edmonton, University of Alberta, CCI Press & GÉTIC, Occasional publications series no.52, pp. 63-74

Abstract This chapter presents the state of our knowledge about the formal economy of food security in the Arctic. It explains the main characteristics of food markets in different Arctic regions, and addresses such questions as: what businesses are involved (private, public, local, national, international, etc.)? What is the structure of the supply chain (import/export, links from the producers to retail stores)? Is local food sold in the formal market (products of renewable resource exploitation and local manufacture, when available)? Are the food chains well established and reliable, or new and fragile? etc. This is the first time an effort is made to synthesize such issues, usually considered under the single angle of the hunting and fishing production in the Arctic. This work provides solid basis for evaluating this key component of food supply and consumption, even if it concludes that more research has to be done to have a complete picture.

Duhaime, Gérard, 2002

Sustainable Food Security in the Arctic: State of Knowledge, In: Duhaime, G. (ed.), Sustainable Food Security in the Arctic. State of Knowledge. Edmonton, University of Alberta, CCI Press & GÉTIC, Occasional publications series no.52, 252p.

Abstract not available

Duhaime, G. and A. Godmaire, 2002

Les modèles du développement du Nord. Analyse exploratoire au Québec isolé, Recherches sociographiques, 43(2): 329-351.

Abstract Dispersées dans tout le Québec non urbanisés, quelque 80 agglomérations dites du « Québec isolé » forment des regroupements ethnogéographiques aux contours flous dont les destins socioéconomiques sont très différents. Cette étude examine les modèles de développement de ces communautés. Elle est fondée sur une analyse comparative détaillée de plusieurs dizaines de variables portant sur la démographie, l'éducation, la santé, le logement, le revenu personnel, les dépenses publiques, les activités économiques. Neuf indicateurs clés sont analysés ici. L'étude montre que ces réalités forment quatre modèles de développement, qui se distinguent principalement suivant le type d'exploitation des ressources naturelles et les caractéristiques de la population. Dans les régions où l'exploitation des ressources est pratiquée à grande échelle, les populations bénéficient des retombées économiques du développement. Mais elles le font selon des modalités différentes, directement parce que les familles en ont fait leur gagne-pain, ou indirectement parce que les populations en cause ont pu capitaliser sur l'attrait des ressources. Dans les régions où l'exploitation des ressources est pratiquée à petite échelle, où la prospérité n'est plus assurée par des mécanismes autrefois efficaces, la situation générale se détériore non seulement parce que l'infrastructure économique demeure faible, mais aussi parce que les populations n'ont pas de poids politique pour qu'il en soit autrement. Dans cette perspective, le facteur ethnique serait un déterminant bien moins important que la présence de richesses massives et la capacité d'en tirer localement partie.

Duhaime, G. and A. Godmaire, 2002

The Conditions of Sustainable Food Security. An Integrated Conceptual Framework, In: Duhaime, G. (ed.), Sustainable Food Security in the Arctic. State of Knowledge. Edmonton, University of Alberta, CCI Press & GÉTIC, Occasional publications series no.52, pp. 15-45

Abstract Based upon a review of the world literature, this chapter presents an integrated conceptual framework of the conditions of food security. The systemic model provides definitions of the principal variables, as well as explanations and illustrations of their mutual - and most of the time multidimensional - relationships. The fundamental framework is that food security and food insecurity (both being potentially sustainable or not) is the result of the relations between social factors (demography, health), intermediating mechanism (food production and circulation in the market and the non-market spheres), and food consumption determinants (accessibility, availability). The framework is drawn here in order to provide the readers with a tool to situate each of the following chapters into a global context, to provide the analytical tool that will guide the synthesis of this book which is presented in the last chapter
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